# R Markdown Examples

The second part is the main body that contains R code chunks and prose in Markdown format. This is what the YAML will resemble for an R Markdown CV that uses my template. pander: An R Pandoc Writer. Using Python with R Markdown. double-click the R-markdown file, so rstudio starts in the right directory click Knit to run the R markdown file and create the output html For the final assignment, several students ended up with data sets larger than the maximum allowed upload size; they then gave me a link to a download link. whereis pandoc "c:\program files (x86)\pandoc\pandoc. To minimize typing, it can be helful to start with an R Markdown template and then modify it as needed. Have you ever tried to find a lightweight yet nice theme for the R Markdown documents, just like this page? Themes for R Markdown With the powerful rmarkdown package, we could easily create nice HTML document by adding some meta information in the header, for example. Markdown has syntax for section headers, lists, tables and more, so you can add as much structure as you want to your resume. which produces caligraphic letters like this Z (\mathcal {Z}) from one of Professor Olivella’s lecture slides. Automatic links for email addresses work similarly, except that Markdown will also perform a bit of randomized decimal and hex entity-encoding to help obscure your address from address-harvesting spambots. Introduction. Data scientists use R Markdown documents to create reproducible code that can be rendered in a variety of output types. The file extension for R Markdown files is “. For each example you can see the input script and the output as rendered by the markstat command. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. R Markdown can also compile R scripts to a notebook which includes commentary, source code, and script output. Knit to HTML Vincent Claes Save document first! 5. You can also use markdown formats in any other file (see configuration settings) Quickly toggle bullet points. How to include LaTeX package in R Markdown? As a minimal example I tested an Rmd document with the header from above including the. DRAFT:March16,2019 R. If GitHub is the primary venue, we render directly to GitHub-flavored markdown and never create HTML. The mathematics is done using a version of $$\LaTeX$$, the premiere mathematics typesetting program. Context and title menu integration. Since pander aims at rendering R objects into Pandoc’s markdown all four (multiline, simple, grid, rmarkdown) of Pandoc’s formats are supported. Figure 1 - Association between tumour factors and 5 year mortality ## Waiting for profiling to be done## Waiting for profiling to be done ## Warning: Removed 3 rows containing missing values (geom_errorbarh). Headings in R Markdown documents do different things based on what output you're creating. com R Markdown is an amazing tool that allows you to blend bits of R code with ordinary text and produce well-formatted data analysis reports very quickly. We find, however, that keeping all of our R code in an R markdown (. Markdown Extra is a lightweight markup language based on Markdown implemented in PHP (originally), Python and Ruby. Now, R Markdown is already covered in the data science specialization in the class on reproducible research. This is helpful if you prefer certain HTML tags to Markdown syntax. R Markdown: The Definitive Guide is the first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. And now time for a horizontal break and off to R!-----## R markdown **R markdown** is a version of Markdown that is expanded to support running R code: in between your text. RStudio offers the opportunity to build MS Word documents from R Markdown files (. It is also available here as pandoc-flavored Markdown. From the File menu, select New File and then R Markdown from the drop down menus. There is a clear parallel between the “project” folders described above and the folders typically found in an R package. knitr examples. In R you can enter each line of code at the prompt in a step-by-step approach. Rmd (R markdown file used to create webpage examples) rollingCerModel. Lack of markdown functionality. Share them here on RPubs. This post shows how to add mathematical formulae to your Markdown documents on the Mac and have them preview and export to PDF correctly. // give it a name: int led = 13; // the setup routine runs once when you press reset: void setup() { // initialize the digital pin as an output. Slidify is a tool that makes it easy to create, customize and publish, reproducible HTML5 slide decks using R Markdown. To create an HTML table in Markdown where a cell in the table has multiple lines — i. ---title: R Markdown output: html_document---This is an R Markdown document. Build script. r (R code examples) rollingCerModel. html', package = 'markdown') Also, markdownToHTML will automatically determine whether or not mathjax and R code highlighting are needed and will include the appropriate Javascript libraries in the output. If you are reading this, you have likely found about example in Chapter 17 in the R Markdown definitive guide book. Widget Gallery. R markdown을 작성하기 위해서는 일반 R script가 아닌. Slidify is a tool that makes it easy to create, customize and publish, reproducible HTML5 slide decks using R Markdown. Have you ever tried to find a lightweight yet nice theme for the R Markdown documents, like this page?. Note that there is also a Cheatsheet specific to Markdown Here if that's what you're looking for. To start a document we need to create a new R Markdown file. R Markdown is an authoring format that enables easy creation of dynamic documents, presentations, and reports that use R plots and data analysis. You can learn more about markdown here. A minimal R Markdown example. Some of the most common output types include HTML, Word, and PDF, but new improvements make it possible to create PowerPoint presentations as well. This is a simple example analysis of data including import from Excel, data structuring and plotting. A more practical example, however, would be the use of bsselect in an R Markdown document where the user could flip through a number of plots that are stored in a subdirectory. This also works for entire sentences or even paragraphs. 2011-12-07 Code Externalization · Use an external R script with your document. It's important to note that both types of chart … can be inserted into R Markdown documents … by constructing the relevant chart in a code chunk. This can be achieved in R programming using the conditional ifelse statement. As you all know, I write everything in Markdown, see my The Markdown Mindset. At this point you think this Markdown thing has potential, but you still have questions “What does Markdown Here actually do ?” Markdown Here is an extension for Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Thunderbird, and Postbox. The new file comes with some example code and text. The tables for format = 'markdown' also work for Pandoc when the pipe_tables extension is enabled (this is the default behavior for Pandoc >= 1. Cache examples. This article describes the basics of creating websites with R Markdown and provides some examples which you can use as a starting point for your own websites. Tips and tricks for working with images and figures in R Markdown documents Posted on June 19, 2017 by [email protected] Asciidoc is designed for this, and one example is its “include” functions. This is a minimal example of using knitr to produce an HTML page from Markdown. Having seen several CVs put together into an R Markdown document (including my own, featuring a few quick and dirty hacks to make it work), the need for an R package was obvious. For example, here is an R code block inserted into the R Markdown file that generates this slide show. Zeppelin uses markdown4j. Line Break in R Markdown Reports / R Notebooks Lately I have been struggling to find a way to accomplish a line break in an R Markdown Report / Notebook. You may also find the following resources helpful: The R Markdown Cheatsheet ⧉ The R Markdown Reference Guide ⧉. So let's establish the basic workflow of creating something with R Markdown. 0 This website is not affiliated with Stack Overflow. This is what the YAML will resemble for an R Markdown CV that uses my template. width = "70%". Themes for R Markdown. For R Markdown, the default graphics device is png. These statements allow you to include all the content of one file in another: include::somefile. com is now LinkedIn Learning! To access Lynda. x Workshop 1: R Markdown and Interactive Dashboards September 10th 2019, 10am (Full Day) Facilitators Carl Howe, Director of Education, RStudio Carl is the Director of Education at RStudio and has been a dedicated R user since 2002. With R Markdown, you can easily create reproducible data analysis reports, presentations, dashboards, interactive applications, books, dissertations, websites, and journal articles, while enjoying the simplicity of Markdown and the great power of. This is intended as a quick reference and showcase. The formatting of this plain text is fairly straight forward (see this cheatsheet) 2. Note the file name of an R Markdown scirpt needs to have the extension. R Markdown allows you to mix text, R code, R output, R graphics, and mathematics in a single document. … Similarly, the appearance of charts in R Markdown output … is controlled by the same code chunk options … for both ggplot2 and base R charts. To view an example, you can toggle between the source and rendered version of a GitLab documentation file. 2 and knitr version 1. Additionally, it builds in “smart” typography for various languages (proper left- and right-sided quotes, for example). This PDF mirrors the post here but contains an extended discussion at the beginning of what R Markdown can do for issues of workflow. “An authoring framework for data science” – R Markdown creators R Markdown allows us to create reproducible documents that weave narrative text together with R code and the output it produces when executed. How to include LaTeX package in R Markdown? As a minimal example I tested an Rmd document with the header from above including the. We aggregate information from all open source repositories. The formatting of this plain text is fairly straight forward (see this cheatsheet) 2. How to set up R / RStudio; Set up your working directory. After completing this tutorial, you will be able to: Add an image to an R markdown report. This is a minimal example of using knitr to produce an HTML page from Markdown. The mathematics is done using a version of $$\LaTeX$$, the premiere mathematics typesetting program. The main purpose of this post is to provide a case study of using R Markdown to prepare a quick reproducible report. NOTE: After writing this post, I created two R packages which add R Markdown templates for CHI Proceedings and CHI Extended Abstract manuscript to RStudio. Users are advised to stick with the default multiline style, but if there is a need to change it either specify style argument when calling pander/pandoc. Since pander aims at rendering R objects into Pandoc’s markdown all four (multiline, simple, grid, rmarkdown) of Pandoc’s formats are supported. The code is evaluated, and both the code and it's results are included in a Markdown document. R Markdown example showing figures & tables with captions, equations, inline R values and references with a Zotero library - bbest/rmarkdown-example. Below "user/repo" refers to the GitHub username and GitHub. There are three recommendations. You can also check out more Markdown tools. Any code between the sets of three apostrophes is R code, any code outside of the sets of three apostrophes is Knitr. However, since formatting options in Markdown are very limited, there is no ‘native’ Markdown code to insert page breaks in the final MS Word output file. RForge strives to provide a colaborative environment for R package developers. Miller Department of Political Science. These statements allow you to include all the content of one file in another: include::somefile. Finally, Emacs is also a self-documenting editor. 50 Updated: 8/14 1. For example, to use the svg device (for Scalable Vector Graphics , which may look better in a web page as they can be scaled without loss of quality), you would use dev='svg' , as follows:. You write the report in markdown, and then launch it as an app with the click of a button. These are great tools for reproducible research. I've recently used the knit with parameters tool in R Studio/R markdown and when entering a file, I need to be in the correct directory. It enables easy creation of dynamic documents, reports and presentations which are fully reproducible. Figure 1 - Association between tumour factors and 5 year mortality ## Waiting for profiling to be done## Waiting for profiling to be done ## Warning: Removed 3 rows containing missing values (geom_errorbarh). It has some R language specific features as well as bunch of general enhancers to markdown. pander: An R Pandoc Writer. As a result, when you have such a need, you should define format in kable() as either "html" or "latex". If you run R code in the console or the RStudio GUI (for example, reading in a data set by pasting code into the console or using the Import Dataset button in the Environment tab), you won’t be able to use the results in your markdown file. Head to our docs to get a key and you can start making, embedding, and sharing plots. Close Visual. show (ari_example ("ari_comments. Dec 8, 2017 1 min read Table of Contents. RMarkdown + Knitr - Statistics. An Example R Markdown Document (A Subtitle Would Go Here if This Were a Class) StevenV. For more examples and extension support, please checkout here. Pimp my RMD: a few tips for R Markdown - holtzy. Looking to use R Markdown to create your thesis? You have come to the right place. If you aren't familiar with Markdown, the following resources might be helpful: Markdown Basics; The Markdown Quick Reference available from the help menu on the source editor toolbar; R Code Chunks. A code block `{r} ((43 - 17)*. R Markdown is a great tool for integrating data analysis and report writing, but it can be a bit daunting to get started. In Markdown files and widgets, you can set text hyperlinks for your URL using the standard Markdown link syntax: [Link Text](Link URL) When linking to another Markdown page in the same Git or TFVC repository, the link target can be a relative path or an absolute path in the repository. 2 and knitr version 1. For example:. As a result, when you have such a need, you should define format in kable() as either “html” or “latex”. RStudio offers the opportunity to build MS Word documents from R Markdown files (. R Markdown is easy enough to use that a little experience with each of the coding frameworks will give you sufficient flexibility to create reports in different formats with widely varying appearances. The first item in a list must be preceded by an empty line. For example, here is an R code block inserted into the R Markdown file that generates this slide show. You can use Markdown in the following places: any pull request's descriptions or comments, or; in README files (if they have the. R Integrated Terminal; Run code in terminal containing existing R session, for example over SSH (Run Selection/Line in Active Terminal) Run all commands in terminal containing existing R session (enable config r. subtitle[ ## Day 2: Applications ### Project TIER Faculty Development Workshop, 12-13 March 2019. R code chunks # set global chunk options: images will. The R Markdown file can contain just text like simple written report or a much more complex document with embedded R code to create charts, graphs, maps, or any other plot that can be produced using R. Introduction to R Markdown. 5 using RStudio. This is what the YAML will resemble for an R Markdown CV that uses my template. Get to know many of the input and output widgets that are available in Shiny with these examples. It can be used to save and execute R code within RStudio and also as a simple formatting syntax for authoring HTML, PDF, ODT, RTF, and MS Word documents as well as seamless transitions between available formats. Markdown is a plain text formatting syntax designed so that it can be converted to HTML. We're going to use an example from the exercises folder, so let's navigate there now, and we'll select the folder 03_02. Build script. An introduction to knitr and R Markdown We will work through several examples to see how these tools can be used to perform efficiently common tasks such as. js graphs with R. Wind: Average wind speed in miles per hour at 0700 and 1000 hours at LaGuardia Airport. Convert tabular data to tables. Examples of r markdown reports keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. R Tools for Visual Studio (RTVS) provides a R Markdown item template, editor support (including IntelliSense for R code within the editor), file generation capabilities, and live preview. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # Advanced R Markdown ## Behind the Knit Button ### Yihui Xie, RStudio ### 2017/01/14. We can use the chunk option cache=TRUE to enable cache, and the option cache. 1 Code Chunks. The examples on this page are written in a before/after style, showing example syntax and the HTML output produced by Markdown. Markdown is a simple text-to-HTML markup language written in plain text. The post is designed to be read along side the R Markdown source code, which is available as a gist on github. There are three recommendations. If you want to make a bulleted list, just start each line with a hyphen character. The document is self contained and fully reproducible which makes it very easy to share. Update: since the answer from @r2evans, it is much easier to insert images into R Markdown and control the size of the image. will appear tiny. How is a report generated from R code Regardless of which format you use, the basic idea is the same: knitr extracts R code in the input document, evaluates it and writes the results to. Please make sure to read the contributor guidelines before opening a new. We have collection of more than 1 Million open source products ranging from Enterprise product to small libraries in all platforms. R Markdown is an authoring format that makes it easy to write reusable reports with R. It provides examples of using plots, output, in-line R code, and markdown. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. And in this latest incarnation of the class, we're just focusing on straight Markdown. We will author an R Markdown document and render it to HTML. This cheatsheet is rendered from a Gist using the {{gist}} helper. R Markdown extends the basic Markdown syntax to allow executable R code to be included in the document. 29 July 2013. R Markdown is a low-overhead way of writing reports which includes R code and the code’s automatically-generated output. For more complete info, see John Gruber's original spec and the Github-flavored Markdown info page. You need R and RStudio to complete this tutorial. Writing with Markdown. Sometimes you may want to include verbatim R code chunks inside R Markdown documents. Widget Gallery. Figure 1 - Association between tumour factors and 5 year mortality ## Waiting for profiling to be done## Waiting for profiling to be done ## Warning: Removed 3 rows containing missing values (geom_errorbarh). Home › R Code › Starting with R Markdown flexdashboard. Blogs are some of the best data science resources available. For example, the file below takes a filename as a parameter and uses the name to read in a data set. It has some R language specific features as well as bunch of general enhancers to markdown. html', package = 'markdown') Also, markdownToHTML will automatically determine whether or not mathjax and R code highlighting are needed and will include the appropriate Javascript libraries in the output. R Markdown documents are ‘knitted’, while R Notebooks are ‘previewed’. However, one of the challenges along the way was that I was missing chunk options to be able to set all the necessary parameters from R Markdown. Choose a title and author, but leave the rest as it is, and press the OK button: The R markdown file you opened, already contains example code. RMarkdown is a framework that provides a literate programming format for data science. For beginners, it is probably a good idea to start with some minimal examples; here I provide a few examples for Rnw, LaTeX, Markdown and HTML, respectively. R Markdown Versus Computational Notebooks. Open a new. Note that there is also a Cheatsheet specific to Markdown Here if that's what you're looking for. Do not pass encoded strings to it! If your input is encoded, (e. R Markdown supports a reproducible workflow for dozens of static and dynamic output formats including HTML, PDF, MS Word, Beamer, HTML5 slides, Tufte-style handouts, books, dashboards, shiny applications, scientific articles, websites, and more. Method 1: Start a new R Markdown file in R Studio. In R you can enter each line of code at the prompt in a step-by-step approach. We aggregate information from all open source repositories. A simple guide to writing Markdown. Mar 03, 2016 · I am using RStudio for writing markdown documents and want to add Table of Contents (TOC) at top of the documents so that the user could click the relevant section for reading. The data in this case happens to be optical density data over time (replicate growth curves for a microorganism) but the nature of the data matters little to the basics introduced. 50 Updated: 8/14 1. See Markdown (by John Gruber) and GitHub Markdown Help for more information. Pandoc’s website contains a full User’s Guide. markdown-it demo. Below is a simple example of displaying GPS latitude and Longitude using R Markdown. R Markdown provides an unified authoring framework for data science, combining your code, its results, and your prose commentary. On the other hand, for the markdown utility or the Markdown class it is virtually the opposite. Home › R Code › Starting with R Markdown flexdashboard. The design of knitr allows any input languages (e. Writing your thesis with R Markdown (3) – Figures, R code and tables Posted on March 18, 2016 by rosannav This is the third post in a short series of tutorials to write your thesis in R Markdown. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax for authoring HTML, PDF, and MS Word documents. A markdown of 40% decreases the price of the shirt by $30 * 0. 2011-12-08 Beamer · Using knitr in beamer slides. class: title-slide center middle inverse. To make a report:. The website also contains some examples of the use of pandoc and a limited online demo. That's fine, but is there anything that would allow me to r markdown rstudio. The idea should be simple enough: interweave narratives with code in a document, knit the document to dynamically generate results from the code, and you will get a report. I needed to do this as my subsequent postings will involve more code chunks regarding Rook deployment and examples, and R Markdown formats and highlights code chunks like a boss!. Slidify is Awesome. New R Markdown document Vincent Claes 3. So the final cost of the shirt is$30 - $12 =$18. compile_notebook: Compiling R scripts to a notebook in rmarkdown: Dynamic Documents for R. Here's an example R Markdown document, and the html document it produces. This is an example of using r markdown to produce an HTML page from a Markdown document. The links to the left provide a quick tour of R Markdown. Note that the HTML markup co-exists with the Markdown code for bullet lists. For beginners, it is probably a good idea to start with some minimal examples; here I provide a few examples for Rnw, LaTeX, Markdown and HTML, respectively. RForge strives to provide a colaborative environment for R package developers. I also have an example repository to automate generating slide deck and serving through Marp CLI + Netlify or ZEIT Now. Paste or type your markdown and see it rendered as HTML. We discuss how to keep the intermediate Markdown file, the figures, and what to commit to Git and push to GitHub. If you want to use an alternate version you should add one of the use_python() family of functions to your R Markdown setup chunk, for example: See the article on Python Version Configuration for additional details on configuring Python versions (including the use of conda or virtualenv environments). Using R Markdown for Class Reports - stat. An interactive document is an R Markdown file that contains Shiny widgets and outputs. See Allaire et al. Line Break in R Markdown Reports / R Notebooks Lately I have been struggling to find a way to accomplish a line break in an R Markdown Report / Notebook. svm-r-markdown-templates: R Markdown templates for academic manuscripts,. Have you ever tried to find a lightweight yet nice theme for the R Markdown documents, just like this page? Themes for R Markdown With the powerful rmarkdown package, we could easily create nice HTML document by adding some meta information in the header, for example. Wind: Average wind speed in miles per hour at 0700 and 1000 hours at LaGuardia Airport. Thanks to John Gruber and Aaron Swartz for creating Markdown. We're going to create a document that combines text, code, and output to record everything that we did in an analysis. We will discuss some of the nuances of evaluating SAS code in subsequent articles. Plain text: this is what you will use to write your manuscript. The mathematics is done using a version of $$\LaTeX$$, the premiere mathematics typesetting program. R-Markdown and Knitr Tutorial (Part 2) Published December 28, 2015 January 4, 2016 by Riddhiman in Data Visualization , R In our last post we quickly went over how to create a new R-Markdown document and embed a Plotly graph in it. The main aim of the pander R package is to provide a minimal and easy tool for rendering R objects into Pandoc's markdown. Turns out, MultiMarkdown (and other new Markdown processors) do support this. Since the development of the rmarkdown package (Allaire et al. This book is published by Chapman & Hall/CRC. This is part two in the Writing in Markdown series. If you want to use an alternate version you should add one of the use_python() family of functions to your R Markdown setup chunk, for example: See the article on Python Version Configuration for additional details on configuring Python versions (including the use of conda or virtualenv environments). A guide to tools for collaboration with R by Noam Ross; Getting Started with R Markdown, knitr, and Rstudio 0. When working with R Markdown, there are three types of text to be concerned with. 96, How to Convert Sweave LaTeX to knitr R Markdown and Converting Sweave LaTeX to knitr LaTeX: A case study by Jeromy Anglim; Tools for making a paper by Will Lowe. 3 Force floats forwards. Including HTML, text, and Markdown files. Adding R Markdown documents of other output formats This post is a minimal example to show how you can render arbitrary Rmd documents on a blogdown website. *test* becomes test ). R Markdown files are useful because. After studying the example, try a few practice exercises with your new knowledge. R Markdown basics. com themes may have different formatting for these styles Inline Links A [link. 2 R markdown. R Markdown Cheat Sheet learn more at rmarkdown. Markdown is a markup language widely used for writing, for example, posts on steem and Utopian. This is a common practice within the wet lab with all researchers keeping a lab book. Knit to HTML Vincent Claes 6. In this article, you will learn to create if and if…else statement in R programming with the help of examples. Note that some features of GitHub Flavored Markdown are only available in the descriptions and comments of Issues and Pull Requests. A minimal R Markdown example. RStudio uses an R package called knitr to render documents written in R Markdown. Hope this helps. io/slides/xaringan. ( ⊕ 2018 Allaire, JJ, Yihui Xie, Jonathan McPherson, Javier Luraschi, Kevin Ushey, Aron Atkins, Hadley Wickham, Joe Cheng, and Winston Chang. 1 Example applications. On a Mac I typed. This post is to introduce an open-source package called mindr I have been developing with R language for creating mindmaps from markdown posts, or vice versa. html (R examples in webpage created with R markdown - best viewed in Chrome) bootStrap. To make a phrase italic in Markdown, you can surround words with an underscore (_). Here is a simple example: n 1X xi n i=1 Note that in the Markdown environment (and in Latex generally). ) without the annoying look and feel but with additional features specific to R package development, such as make check on-commit, nighlty builds of packages, testing. Each example below contains a link to the source code within the dashboard. Pandoc includes a Haskell library and a standalone command-line program. JSON is a useful format as we will see when we get to our modules on obtaining data from the web, but they are also much more difficult to track for revisions using Git. If you do not want the R codes in a chunk to be evaluated use {r, eval=FALSE} right after the beginning triple backticks. When using kable() as a top-level expression, you do not need to explicitly print() it due to R's automatic implicit printing. You can render collections of R Markdown documents as a website using the rmarkdown::render_site function. Note the file name of an R Markdown scirpt needs to have the extension. A collection of R code snippets with explanations. R Markdown documents are fully reproducible and support dozens of output formats, like PDFs, Word files, slideshows, and more. You get on with the business of writing (without any fancy code) and Markdown takes care of producing clean, web standards compliant HTML. R Markdown templates are typically re-distributed within R packages, and can be easily discovered from within RStudio using the New R Markdown dialog:. For example, the file below takes a filename as a parameter and uses the name to read in a data set. Enter a title, here we will use "R Markdown Examples". For example, if you set the size of a ggplot figure to large, then fonts etc. R Markdown provides an easy way to produce rich, fully-documented, reproducible analyses. Now, R Markdown is already covered in the data science specialization in the class on reproducible research. For example, UC Santa Barbara has a very specific set of formatting requirements for the final PDF dissertation, all of which I included in mine through the appropriate. These sites automatically convert markdown syntax to HTML, so it can be displayed in a browser. In GitLab, front matter is only used in Markdown files and wiki pages, not the other places where Markdown formatting is supported. The first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. ) without the annoying look and feel but with additional features specific to R package development, such as make check on-commit, nighlty builds of packages, testing. Now you have learned the very basic concepts of R Markdown. The ultimate goal is to offer SourceForge-like services (such as SVN repository, place for documentation, downloads, mailing lists, bugzilla, wiki etc. And in this latest incarnation of the class, we're just focusing on straight Markdown. The PDF also contains examples how to execute R within the Markdown document. Unfortunately, $$\LaTeX$$ is also a complete pain in the ass. With R Markdown we can combine R codes, plots and text to create beautiful reports and presentations. Wind: Average wind speed in miles per hour at 0700 and 1000 hours at LaGuardia Airport. R Markdown is a variant of Markdown that has embedded R code chunks, to be used with knitr to make it easy to create reproducible web-based reports. With many attendees of the 2018 rOpenSci OzUnconf having converted their CV to use R Markdown, the conference was the perfect space to develop and formalise the ideas. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to$585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over$1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: